FRCR exam menu

physics_atom_blue_icon
FRCR Physics Notes

Revision notes for the First FRCR physics exam

anatomy_icon
Free mock FRCR anatomy exams

18 mock anatomy exams for the first FRCR examination

Join 10k+ newsletter subscribers

Please note: Your email address will never be shared with any 3rd parties. It will only be used for Radiology Cafe communications. Emails are sent less than once a month on average. Read our Privacy policy for more details.

Normal variants

A gallery of normal anatomical variants for trainees revising for the First FRCR Anatomy exam

A normal variant is an atypical finding that is seen in a percentage of the population, which generally has no clinical significance, and is considered within the spectrum of normal findings.  Scroll down to view images of normal anatomical variants.  Click on an image to see a full larger version with arrows.  Please note that this list is still incomplete.  If you have any examples you would like to add to this page then please feel free to contribute!

Chest

Aberrant right subclavian artery as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Aberrant right subclavian artery
Aberrant right subclavian artery as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Aberrant right subclavian artery
Common origin of the brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery as seen on angiography (normal variant)
Common origin of the brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery
Aberrant left pulmonary artery as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Aberrant left pulmonary artery
Aberrant left pulmonary artery as seen on a sagittal CT (normal variant)
Aberrant left pulmonary artery
Duplication of the superior vena cava (SVC) as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Duplication of the SVC
Hemiazygos continuation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Hemiazygos continuation of the IVC
Azygos fissure as seen on a PA chest radiograph (normal variant)
Azygos fissure
Azygos fissure as seen on a PA chest radiograph (normal variant)
Azygos fissure
Azygos fissure as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Azygos fissure
Left horizontal fissure as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Left horizontal fissure
Dextrocardia as seen on a PA chest radiograph (normal variant)
Dextrocardia
Pectus excavatum as seen on a PA chest radiograph (normal variant)
Pectus excavatum
Pectus excavatum as seen on a PA chest radiograph (normal variant)
Pectus excavatum
Pectus excavatum as seen on a lateral chest radiograph (normal variant)
Pectus excavatum

Abdomen and pelvis

Riedel's lobe of the liver as seen on an abdominal radiograph (normal variant)
Riedel's lobe
Beaver tail liver as seen on a coronal CT (normal variant)
Beaver tail liver
Pancreas Divisum as seen on MRCP (normal variant)
Pancreas divisum
Annular pancreas as seen on coronal MRI (normal variant)
Annular pancreas
Horseshoe kidney as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Horseshoe kidney
Horseshoe kidney as seen on ultrasound (normal variant)
Horseshoe kidney
Cross fused renal ectopia as seen on coronal CT (normal variant)
Cross fused renal ectopia
Pelvic kidney (right) as seen on axial CT (normal variant)
Pelvic kidney
Pelvic kidney (right) as seen on axial CT (normal variant)
Pelvic kidney
Double ureter (right) as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Double ureter (right)
Double ureter (right) as seen on a coronal CT (normal variant)
Double ureter (right)
Double ureter (right) as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Double ureter (right)
Bicornuate uterus as seen on a coronal MRI (normal variant)
Bicornuate uterus
Aortic origin of the common hepatic artery and splenic artery as seen on 3D reconstruction (normal variant)
Aortic origin of the common hepatic artery and splenic artery
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) origin of the right hepatic artery as seen on angiography (normal variant)
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) origin of the right hepatic artery
Retroaortic left renal vein as seen on an axial MRI (normal variant)
Retroaortic left renal vein
Retroaortic left renal vein as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Retroaortic left renal vein
Left sided inferior vena cava (IVC) as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Left sided inferior vena cava
Absent inferior vena cava (IVC) as seen on an axial CT (normal variant) - arrows point to multiple venous collaterals
Absent IVC
Absent inferior vena cava (IVC) as seen on an axial CT (normal variant) - arrows point to prominent azygos and hemiazygos veins
Absent IVC

Musculoskeletal

Bifid right mandibular condyle as seen on a coronal CT (normal variant)
Bifid right mandibular condyle
Luno-triquetral coalition as seen on a wrist radiograph (normal variant)
Luno-triquetral coalition
Luno-triquetral coalition as seen on an AP wrist radiograph (normal variant)
Luno-triquetral coalition
Os acromilae as seen on a shoulder radiograph (normal variant)
Os acromilae
Calcaneonavicular coalition as seen on an ankle radiograph (normal variant)
Calcaneonavicular coalition
Sternal foramen as seen on a coronal CT (normal variant)
Sternal foramen
Sternal foramen as seen on 3D reconstruction (normal variant)
Sternal foramen
Cervical rib (right) as seen on a PA chest radiograph (normal variant)
Cervical rib (right)
Bifid ribs (left) as seen on a PA chest radiograph (normal variant)
Bifid ribs (left)
Sacralisation of L5 as seen on an AP lumbar spine radiograph (normal variant)
Sacralisation of L5
Bipartite patella as seen on an AP knee radiograph (normal variant)
Bipartite patella
Bipartite patella as seen on a lateral knee radiograph (normal variant)
Bipartite patella
Bipartite patella as seen on an axial MRI (normal variant)
Bipartite patella

Head and neck

Concha bullosa as seen on a coronal CT (normal variant)
Concha bullosa
Accessory sinus in the clivus as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Accessory sinus in the clivus
Cavum septum pellucidum as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Cavum septum pellucidum
Cavum septum pellucidum as seen on an axial MRI (normal variant)
Cavum septum pellucidum
Cavum vergae as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Cavum vergae
Cavum septum pellucidum and cavum vergae as seen on an axial CT (normal variant)
Cavum septum pellucidum and cavum vergae
Fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery as seen on 3D reconstruction (normal variant)
Fetal origin of the PCA
Persistent metopic suture as seen on axial CT (normal variant)
Persistent metopic suture
Trifurcation of the anterior cerebral artery as seen on 3D reconstruction (normal variant)
Trifurcation of the ACA
Persistent right trigeminal artery as seen on 3D reconstruction (normal variant)
Persistent right trigeminal artery

Contributors

Christopher Clarke
Lara Sammut
Karthik
Alan Naz
Laura Smith
Chloe Yang
Maryam Rahiminejad
Syed Ehsan Ullah
Josephine Weaver
Subash Thapa
Vinay Kumar Malik
Abanindu Thakur
(would you like to see your name here?  See below…)

If you have any examples of normal anatomical variants not shown on this page (or shown with a different modality), then contribute using the form below!  We review every submission and reply to every message.  If your image is used and you decide to tell us your name, we will also give you credit on this site!

Upload a normal anatomical variant

Add to this collection of normal variants!

Share on facebook
Like
Share on twitter
Tweet
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn
Share on whatsapp
WhatsApp