MR contrast agents


Magnetism definitions


Type of magnetism Definition Examples
Ferromagnetic Large magnetic susceptibility i.e. when placed in a magnetic field the field strength is much stronger inside the material than it is outside

Remains magnetised when external magnetic field removed

Iron
Nickel
Cobalt
Superparamagnetic

Consist of some elements of ferromagnetic materials

Magnetic susceptibility between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic

 
Paramagnetic Weakly attracted to magnets and, therefore, only weakly influence a magnetic field

Increases T1 and T2 relaxation times (i.e. decrease the T1 and T2 times)

Oxygen
Magnesium
Gadolinium
Diamagnetic When placed in a magnetic field will weakly repel the field

Results in loss of signal in bowel on MRI after barium sulphate suspensions administered

Water
Copper
Nitrogen
Barium sulphate

 

Now available to download!
Written by radiologists, for radiologists with plenty of diagrams to explain complicated concepts in an easy-to-follow way. An excellent resource for radiology physics revision.

 

FRCR Physics Notes: Beautiful revision notes for the First FRCR Physics exam

 

Types of contrast agents


T1 paramagnetic contrast agents

These cause local magnetic field distortions that enhance T1 and T2 relaxation i.e. result in greater T1 and T2 signal. Factors that affect degree of T1 relaxation:

  • Concentration of Gd in tissues
  • Proximity of surrounding tissues
  • Rotational motion of Gd
  • Number of water molecules that associate with Gd
  • Time that water molecules are around to associated with Gd

The effect of T1 relaxation will increase with the concentration of Gd until an optimum concentration is reached (increasing T1 signal). After this, any further increases in concentration will reduce the T1 signal due to T2 relaxation effects being more prominent. 

Gadolinium

  • E.g. gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA), which on its own is toxic so must be encased in another molecule. The different MR contrast agents use different chelates
  • Paramagnetic
  • T1 contrast agent
  • Extracellular
  • Allows dynamic phase imaging e.g. arterial, venous and equilibrium

Hepatobiliary agents

  • Usually contain manganese
  • Paramagnetic
  • T1 contrast agent
  • Intracellular (taken up by functioning hepatocytes in health liver tissue)
  • Agent slowly taken up by hepatocytes
    • Can image up to 24 hours later
    • Doesn't allow for dynamic imaging

 

T2 superparamagnetic contrast agents

The small local magnetic field disruption caused by the contrast agent will slightly alter the precessional frequency of any proton that is in its vicinity. Once the proton moves away it will return to its precessional frequency but with a phase shift (spin dephasing) which speeds up the T2 decay and reduces the T2 signal.

The higher the concentration of the contrast agent the greater the dephasing and the lower the T2 signal.

Iron oxide

  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) agents
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide does not leak into the interstitium. It remains in the intravascular space until it is eliminated via the reticuloendothelial system
  • Coated with substances to increase uptake by the reticuloendothelial system
  • Reduces T2 signal of absorbing tissues which decreases the T2 signal
  • Requires injection one hour before images acquired

 

Next page: MR image quality


  Send us your feedback

Get our newsletter

Please note: Your email address will never be shared with any 3rd parties. It will only be used for Radiology Cafe communications. Emails are sent approx once a month. Read our Privacy policy for more details.