Ultrasound imaging makes use of sound waves at frequencies beyond the range of human hearing. These waves pass through tissues, get reflected, and the returning wave (echo) is detected and forms the image. In B-mode imaging, the most common imaging used in medicine, the intensity of the returning wave is represented as a level of brightness on the monitor to give a 2D cross-sectional image on the monitor.
This chapter focuses on the physics, production and manipulation of sound by the ultrasound machine to create an image. It also covers the artefacts created during imaging.